The Czech Republic is a representative democracy. Executive powers rest with the President and the government, which represents the highest body of executive power. The government is responsible to the Chamber of Deputies.
The President is the head of state, elected directly in a two-round system since 2013. With the consent of the Senate, the President appoints judges of the Constitutional Court and is entitled, under certain conditions, to dissolve the Chamber of Deputies. He or she can return bills for further consideration to the Chamber of Deputies, and grants amnesties.
The President appoints the Prime Minister. Government members are appointed by the President based on a proposition made by the Prime Minister. The President accepts the resignation of the Prime Minister and through him or her also the resignations of the individual cabinet members.
The Parliament of the Czech Republic consists of two chambers, the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. Two hundred deputies are elected into the Chamber of Deputies every four years based on proportional representation. Elections for the Senate are two-round and based on the majority rule. Elections are held every 2 years, when 1/3 of senators is replaced; each of the 81 Senators has a six-year mandate.
The Constitutional Court consists of 15 judges and guarantees constitutionality. It provides protection of the basic (constitutional) rights and is even entitled to abolish laws or their articles. It is not, however, a part of the system of the courts of general jurisdiction, whose highest bodies are the Supreme Court, engaging in both civil and criminal justice, and the Supreme Administrative Court responsible for administrative judicature.
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