In the CR, bills are introduced in the Chamber of Deputies. Bills may be introduced by a single deputy, a group of deputies, the Senate, the government or regional councils.
Adoption of bills by the Parliament
Proposed legislation must pass through first, second and third reading in the Chamber of Deputies. In the first reading, if the bill is not rejected as a whole, it is referred for consideration to the relevant committees. In the second reading individual amendments to the bill are proposed, which can then be passed in the third reading. At the end of the third reading the bill is passed by the Chamber of Deputies as a whole.
The approved draft bill is sent from the Chamber of Deputies for consideration to the Senate. The only exceptions to this rule are the state budget and the final state account legislation, which are considered by the Chamber of Deputies only. In the Senate the draft bill is first addressed by the organisational committee, which refers it for consideration to other committees and recommends to the Senate’s president the date of a session at which the draft bill will be considered within a thirty-day period.
The Senate’s assembly can then express its will not to deal with the bill, it can pass it or reject it, or, as the case may be, return it to the Chamber of Deputies with amendments. A bill rejected or returned by the Senate must in turn be reconsidered by the Chamber of Deputies, which can approve it either in its original version or as amended by the Senate. In order to outvote a bill returned by the Senate, however, the Chamber of Deputies requires a majority of all the Deputies, i.e. 101 votes. Otherwise the bill is rejected.
Constitutional draft bills or changes to the Czech Republic’s constitution represent a special category and as such are required to be passed by both Chambers¬ and a number of votes significantly higher than that required by normal laws – the approval of three fifths of all the Deputies and three fifth of the present Senators is needed. Where constitutional and election laws are concerned, the Chamber of Deputies cannot outvote the Senate’s veto.
After the bill has been debated by the Senate or repeatedly passed by the Chamber of Deputies, it is then sent to the President of the Republic for signing. It is the president’s right to reject the bill, in which case it is referred back to the Chamber of Deputies, which again requires 101 votes to outvote the presidential veto. Some bills can thus be considered by the Chamber of Deputies three times.
Ministry regulations, government orders
A law may authorise a ministry or the government to issue a legal enactment regulating a clearly defined domain. Such legal enactment is called regulation („vyhláška“) or government order („nařízení vlády“) and it is passed neither by the Parliament, nor by the President. It is published in the Collection of Laws.